One thing you have to note is that format for a project proposal can sometimes vary depending on what your supervisor, department or school prefer. For example, this sample project proposal is derived from a format used at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN). So check if there is any specific format recommended by your school, else you can derive from this example.
In this post we would be looking at format for final project proposal.
Sample project proposal for undergraduate/final year students
CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF A PELTON WHEEL TURBINE FOR SMALL-SCALE HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
AHMED, TUNDE EMEKA [REG. NUMBER]
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
There is a need to develop mechanical systems applicable for converting the small hydro potentials that exist in Nigeria to small-scale hydroelectricity.
Inspired by the need for Nigeria to explore energy sources that are more environmentally friendly than fossil fuel, suitable for industrial applications, and yet economical, this project work is on constructing a Pelton turbine suitable for small-scale hydroelectricity generation.
The method of getting this work done involves studying and analyzing the design of already existing Pelton turbines and then constructing such a turbine from locally available materials.
Although the scope of this work doesn’t go beyond the construction of a Pelton turbine, a number of other systems that will help in demonstrating the end result will be incorporated into the work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
- Statement of the problem
- Purpose of the study
Chapter Two: Literature Review
- Review of Pelton turbine design
- Justification of the study
Chapter Three: Methodology
- Pelton wheel design
- Choice of Materials
- Cost analysis
Over the years, much effort has been put into developing alternative energy sources free from the negative consequences of fossil fuels. Hydroelectricity has remained among the top alternative to fossil fuels because of its numerous advantages.
In many countries, including China, India, and Brazil, attention has been paid not only to large-scale hydropower plants but also to small-scale hydroelectricity. But in Nigeria, it is not so. Small-scale hydro has not been given much attention in the country, and there is a need to have locally manufactured systems that will help the country utilize the hydro potentials that exist.
1.1 Background of Study
In 1866, Samuel Knight develops a bucketed wheel that captures the energy of a free jet, which converted a high head of water to kinetic energy. Knight’s invention was inspired by the high-pressure jet systems used in hydraulic mining in the gold ﬁelds.
Lester Allan Pelton in 1879 develops a double bucket design, exhausting the water to the side, eliminating some energy loss of the Knight wheel which exhausted some water back against the center of the wheel. This Pelton’s invention, today known as the Pelton wheel or Pelton turbine, marked the first time energy from the water was converted most efficiently.
Inspired by the invention of the earlier water wheels, the Pelton turbine is being used in engineering applications today, especially in hydroelectric systems where it is used to convert water energy into mechanical energy.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Fossil fuel has been associated with a lot more negative environmental implications than hydroelectricity and other energy renewable energy sources. The negative impacts of fossil fuel for power generation include the increase of greenhouse effect, health implications, global warming, climate change, acidic pollution, oil spills, rise in sea levels, and a shift in the ecological balance and land impacts.
Nigeria is a tropical region country that experiences a long rainy season every year. The rainfall water can be channelled to drive a turbine to produce small-scale electricity. There are also various streams and rivers in the country with small-scale hydro potential. But these sources have gotten little or no attention in the country. Therefore, the need arises to construct turbines that can be used to utilize the small-scale hydro potential in Nigeria to produce more economically and environmentally friendly energy.
1.3 Purpose of study
The aim of this project work is to construct a Pelton turbine suitable for small-scale hydroelectricity generation.
This aim will be achieved through the following objectives:
- studying the design of already existing Pelton turbines
- constructing a Pelton turbine using locally available materials
This work will not go into the complexity of modelling or constructing a complete hydroelectric power plant. Instead, this work will focus on constructing a Pelton turbine for small-scale hydro. Other necessary components that will be used to demonstrate the working of the turbine, examples are the water source, alternator, and other electrical components, which are not the mainstay of this work.
2.1 Review of Pelton turbine design
Several works have been done and several studies carried out on Pelton turbines, using both analytical and numerical methods. Most of the advanced studies focused on determining and predicting the performances of the machine. Others have studied the service life, and rupture threshold of the machine due to fatigue or corrosion. A number of past studies have tried to improve the design and construction of a Pelton turbine.
- Alexandre PERRIG (2007) work tries to fully understand the physical phenomena involved in the Pelton turbine bucket ﬂow.
- Binaya K.C. and Bhola Thapa (2009) carried out a study mainly focused on finding the pressure distribution inside the Pelton bucket.
- Bryan Patrick Ho-Yan’s (2012) Design of a Low Head Pico Hydro Turbine for Rural Electrification in Cameroon considered, among other things, the general principles and the system components for Pico Hydro.
2.2 Justification of the Study
This work is mainly due to the perceived need for Nigeria to adopt, in a much larger number, small-scale hydroelectric generation. The need for this country to do so includes, but is not limited to the following reasons summarized below:
- Low power costs: since small-scale hydro plants don’t require any form of fuel to run. In addition to this, it doesn’t require much resources or money to construct micro or Pico hydroelectric plants.
- Reduced CO2 emissions.
- Suitability for industrial applications.
In accomplishing this project work, the following methods will be used:
Design: an important and initial part of this work will be the studying of already existing designs of the Pelton turbine so as to be able to construct a high enough Pelton turbine for this project work.
Construction: construction of the turbines will be done with locally available materials. This will involve making a pattern and using a casting process to make construct the buckets, and then sourcing locally available materials for other components of the turbine system.
3.1 Pelton wheel design
The figure below shows the typical geometry of a Pelton type turbine.
The turbine will consist of buckets mounted on a flange. The buckets will be fastened on the flange with a pin. The flange will be mounted on a wheel necessitating the transfer of energy from water to the shaft horsepower.
Water emanating from a nozzle will be used to drive the runner, and the energy extracted from the water will be converted into mechanical energy. The shaft power will be used to drive an alternator to produce electricity.
3.2 Choice of Materials
In constructing the Pelton turbine buckets a heavy metal that will increase the torque obtainable, will be sought. But in the event whereby finding and using such materials for casting the buckets becomes too difficult, aluminium or plastic or any other available and suitable material will be used in the casting work.
The flange, where the buckets will be mounted will be fabricated from mild steel for easier machinability. The shaft will also be made of mild steel.
3.3 Cost analysis
The major cost that will be incurred from this project work will come from constructing the buckets for the Pelton wheel. The reason for this is that such parts are not manufactured in the country, and finding a workshop with a good level of expertise where such a furnace for casting work is available won’t be easy.
Another component that will add significantly to the cost will be a pump, piping, and nozzles that are necessary for demonstrating the working of the turbine. Having considered these and other components that will be needed in this work, the estimated cost for this work is as summarized below:
|S/N||COMPONENT||ESTIMATED COST OF FABRICATION/PURCHASE|
|3||Piping and nozzles||2000|
|5||Bearings and shafts||2000|
- Alexandre PERRIG. (2007) Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in Pelton turbine buckets. Lausanne, EPFL
- Binaya K.C., and Bhola Thapa. (2009). Pressure distribution at inner surface of selected pelton bucket for micro hydro. Kathmandu university journal of science, engineering and technology. vol. 5, no. Ii, September, pp 42-50.
- Bryan Patrick Ho-Yan. (2012). Design of a Low Head Pico Hydro Turbine for Rural Electrification in Cameroon. Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
- Anonymous (2016). “Hydroelectricity.” Wikipedia [online]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity. Accessed [full date].
I hope you fine this article helpful as well as interesting.