Differences Between Science And Philosophy: Time and time again, the issue of the differences between Science and philosophy has been a subject of debate laid down in numerous articles. Yet again this question continues to pop up especially amongst Scientists and Philosophers, and this Article seeks to write once more on this subject and lay to rest the differences which exists between Science and Philosophy.
Meaning of Science
Science originates from a Latin word ‘Scientia’ means Knowledge. This Word Science literally means the systematic study of the structure, behaviour, property, and knowledge of the Natural and Physical World. This knowledge of the Natural and Physical world is attained by Science through experiments and Observations.
Science could also be defined as a branch of Study dealing with the knowledge of the Structure and Behaviour of the Natural and Physical world based on Facts which it can prove. Finally, Science is a System for organizing the knowledge about a Particular subject concerned with human behaviour and actions.
Meaning of Philosophy
Philosophy is derived from the Greek word “Philosophia”, Philo meaning Love and Sophia meaning Wisdom. So therefore Philosophy is literally the Love of Wisdom. It can be defined as the study of the Nature and meaning of the Universe and Human life and it involves the rational investigation and enquiry about Human existence, Phenomenon, Knowledge, and Ethics.
Philosophy is the Rational, Methodical, and Fundamental investigating into the fundamentals of Human existence and experience. Philosophers usually seek to understand the truth behind human existence, human related concepts, human coexistence, the relationship which exists between the nature of Human and their existence.
Philosophy is usually based on Logical arguments, reasoning and enquiry into the nature of existence. More recently, Modern Philosophers applies Scientific method in their search for Wisdom. This is one of the things which breeds about the continued Similarities between Science and Philosophy.
Similarities Between Science And Philosophy
a. Both Science and Philosophy are concerned with nature of things, reality and the Natural Phenomena.
b. Both Science and Philosophy aims at reducing complex facts into a Simpler one and discovering unknown phenomenon.
c. Both Science and Philosophy uses Reason as the only yard stick and Rationale for ascertaining a fact, inquiry, or truth.
d. Both Science and Philosophy deals with Contingent Facts or Truths.
e. Both Science and Philosophy needs each other to achieve it’s desired results, as Philosophy without the logical method of Science, results into nothing and Science without Philosophical process results into no Reasonable findings.
In purview of the above similarities, we can say that Science and Philosophy are closely related. However, in Reality they are miles apart as a host of differences exists between the both of them.
Differences Between Science and Philosophy
a. Science deals with Empirical knowledge, whereas Philosophy deals with Priori Knowledge. This means that Science is all about Knowledge obtained through experience, experiments, and inquires rather than Theory, but on the other hand Philosophy deals with Knowledge which is not learnt from Experience or Experiments. For example, if you see a Cat, you will know that a Cat is an Animal, so therefore you will also know and conclude that every Cat is an animal.
b. Science relates to the Study of the Natural Phenomenon in the World, while Philosophy deals with the Logical Reasoning, Aesthetics, Ethics, and Thinking of Human Beings, Enquiry into Human existence, and understanding the truth behind Human existence.
c. Science and Philosophy works through different Methods. Science deals with the testing of a Hypothesis by using a Factual Data (Observation based on Hypothesis Testing), While Philosophy deals with Logical analysis based on Reasoning (Reason based on Logical Analysis).
d. Philosophy is concerned with Subjective and Objective questions, while Science is concerned with only Objective questions.
e. Practitioners in the Study of Science are called Scientists, while Practitioners in the area of Philosophy are called Philosophers.
f. Philosophers acquire knowledge through Thinking, but Scientists acquire Knowledge through Observations.
g. Science is usually about descriptive facts and Truth, whereas Philosophy is usually about normative and evaluative Truth. This means that Philosophy usually deals with Truth based on Assumption by everyone in a group, but Science deals with which truth about what a Thing or Phenomenon is.
h. Science is concerned about Physical objects, whereas Philosophy is concerned about Abstract Objects. This means that Science is concerned about the Physical world, Human beings, Natural Phenomenon, but Philosophy on the other hand concerns itself with things which we can’t see, trying to determine truth through our mind and Rational thinking, and Philosophy often acquires knowledge through Abstraction.
i. Science tells us facts about the Universe, whereas Philosophy helps is interpret some of these facts.
j. Philosophical explanation of a Fact is based on Logical Reasoning and Arguments, but a Scientific explanation is based on Reasoning from observed facts.
k. Science deals with the Material cause of the Universe, while Philosophy deals with the material, efficient, and final cause of the universe.
l. Science deals with a particular department of the World, however Philosophy deals with the whole Universe.
m. Science deals with only facts, but Philosophy deals with the ultimate nature of Reality.
n. Philosophy rides on the opinion of Philosophers, but in Science unproven opinions are worthless and unacceptable.
In Conclusion, truthfully speaking Science and Philosophy are closely related as they work hand in glove with each other to achieve their desired results. This is why Max Weber rightly said that Sciences without Philosophy is aggressive without unity, a body without Soul and Philosophy without Science is a Soul without a body different in nothing from Poetry and it’s dream, but inspite of the close relationship between Science and Philosophy, there are lots of differences which exists between them as examined above in this Article.